Atheists and Marxists not only deny the existence of God, they also contend that humans do not have immortal souls and are nothing more than animals that are capable of reasoning.
We know from Divine Revelation that God gives a person an extraordinary dignity at the moment of his creation. The Lord God creates him in His own image and likeness, so the person radiates the reflection of God Himself. “So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.” (Genesis 1:27) A person is made up of a material body, and of an individual, non-material, and immortal soul, endowed with spiritual faculties, such as: reason, a free will, a capacity to love, and a consciousness which empowers him to distinguish between good and evil. In the Catechism of the Catholic Church we read about this immortal human soul that “the body made of matter becomes a living, human body; spirit and matter, in man, are not two natures united, but rather their union forms a single nature.” (CCC 365)
God Created Man for Immortality
In creating humanity, God “endowed them with strength like his own, and made them in his own image.” (Sirach 17:3) Thanks to the immortal human soul, as St. John Paul II writes, a person “is a manifestation of God in the world, a sign of his presence, a trace of his glory. (Genesis 1:26-27; Psalm 8:6) The life which God bestows upon man is much more than mere existence in time. It is a drive towards fullness of life; it is the seed of an existence which transcends the very limits of time: ‘For God created man for incorruption, and made him in the image of his own eternity’ — Wisdom 2:23.” (Evangelium vitae, 34)
The Lord Jesus speaks clearly about the fact that humans have immortal souls: “Do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell.” (Matthew 10:28)
In contrast, St. Paul in writing about mankind identifies the mortal body and the immortal soul, the psyche and the pneuma, as the characteristics of supernatural life: “spirit and soul and body” (1 Thessalonians 5:23). And in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (5:1-10) St. Paul calls death the “abandonment of the body”. The indestructible “I”, the soul, “abandons the body” and lives in Christ.